Mangoes from Mux (Multan City)
MANGO, a member of the Anacardiaceae family, is an erect, broad specimen that can reach 100 feet high and 125 feet wide. A tree of this size develops a deep tap root and an extensive root system. However, pruning or containerizing can control the size.
Nearly evergreen, leaves are mainly borne in rosettes at the tips of branches, drooping like ribbons, leaves begin rose or wine red, turning glossy green. Thousands of flowers are borne in clusters on showy, erect, pyramidal branches. Fruits vary from round to oblong, yellow to red to purple. Our varieties are juicy, sweet and fragrant without the stringy fibrous tissue sometimes found in lesser desired cultivars. Inside the pulp is a single, flat elongated seed.
Mango is native to Asia, eastern India, Burma and the Andaman Islands. Buddhist monks took mango to Malaya and eastern Asia in the 5th Century B.C. From there to Africa, Brazil, West Indies, Barbados, Jamaica; Mango reached Florida in 1833. After years and years of testing, involving millions of acres under cultivation; 500 superior varieties have evolved. Of these, we have selected the best hybrids; resistant to anthracnose, reliable producers, succulent flavors. Each grafted tree comes with parentage description.
The mango is naturally adaptable to environmental conditions, growing well in groves, dooryards, and containers; outdoors or indoors; high or low altitudes; rich loam or sand. The only necessity being water during the summer months. For best results, trees should be planted in enriched holes 2 feet deep and wide. After trees begin to bear fruit, 5:8:10 fertilizer should be applied 4 times a year. Pruning should be avoided until after growth year 4 and then only done slightly after fruit harvest if needed for shaping.
Mango fruit matures 4/5 months after flowering. In addition to the fruit color and softness, proper maturity can be ascertained by the snap of the stem after slight pulling. Harvesting fruit with a 4 inch or so stem intact prevents leakage of milky, resinous sap.
Fruit can be picked green and left to ripen at room temperature, usually a week. Harvested fruit should immediately be washed to remove any sap which will reduce the change of anthracnose. After ripening, fruit keeps at room temperature for one week or refrigerated for 2 weeks. Diseases include scale and mildew which can cause early fruit drop and both are controllable with spraying.
Mango can be eaten alone, in salads, as deserts by peeling, seeding and cutting into bit size pieces. It can also be cooked and make into jam, jelly, or added to meat dishes. Mango can be frozed whole or peeled and sliced. Peeled mango should be sprinkled with lime juice to avoid discoloration. Green mango can be peeled, sliced, parboiled and cooked with spices for chutney and pickles. 100g of fruit contains 62 calories, .4 g protein, and 17 g carbohydrates.
The Mango Nutritional Value
The mango fruit is a large, fleshy drupe, containing an edible mesocarp of varying thickness. Fruit color is genotype dependant and range from green, greenish-yellow, yellow and red blush. The exocarp is thick and glandular. The mesocarp can be fibrous or fiber-free with flavor ranging from turpentine to sweet. The endocarp is woody, thick and fibrous. No part of the fruit is wasted.
The seed is used for extraction of the starch ‘amchur’, and the peels have been used as a source of anacardic acid. The mango wood is of low quality and the bark of the tree is an important source of tannins for curing leather. Mango fruit contains amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, minerals, organic acids, proteins and vitamins. During the ripening process, the fruit are initially acidic, astringent, and rich in ascorbic acid.
Following fruit set, starch accumulates in the mesocarp. Free sugars, including glucose, fructose, and sucrose generally increase during ripening giving the fruit turpentine to sweet-tasting flavor varying with species. The fruit is picked from the tree prior to ripening for export to other market places throughout the world. The fruit will turn colors during the ripening stage even after its removal from the tree.
Mangoes are an important component of the diet in many less developed countries in the tropics and subtropics. In regions of the world that have experienced low living standards and serious nutrition deficiencies, mangoes’ attractiveness and flavor have also enhanced the quality of life.
The mango is native to southern Asia, especially Burma, eastern India and Pakistan. It spread early on to Malaya, eastern Asia and other countries. The Pakistani and Indian Mangos have less tolerance against humidity and the bright red flushes of trees are subject to mildew. Most mangoes tree in the Multan area are monoembryonic with single embrgo of hybrid origin can not produce true from the seed.
Grafting onto the seedling roots stock is dun to get the plants.The desired mango variety grafting material (called “scion wood”) from proven trees must be grafted onto a young seedling. We are continuously planting seeds and grafting, selecting varieties that produce on and off-season fruit.Mangos are considered by many as the most delicious of all fruit.Mangos basically require a frost-free climate.
Flowers and small fruit can be killed if the temperature drops below 40° F, even for a short period. Young trees may be seriously damaged if the temperature drop below 30° F, but mature trees may withstand for a very short periods in temperature as low as 25° F. The mangos must have warm, dry weather to set fruit. In summer and following cool summer fog as well as Wet and humid weather can cause growth of anthracnose consequently poor fruit set afterward.
Dwarf cultivation is suitable in case more trees per acre are required Few known mango spices of trees are long-lived as long as 300 years which are still capable of fruit production In deep soil conditions where the taproot descends up to the depth of 20 ft and widely spread roots system the tree may gain the height of 50 feet up. Old mango trees at the age of 250 years are still fruiting in a farm located at a distance of 12 miles north-east of Multan at Sadder Pur which is quite close to my mango farm.
The flowers are yellowish in inflorescences, which appears on branch terminals. Flies, bees act as pollinators that are responsible to maintain the cycle of nature. FLOWERS. The pyramidal flower panicles borne on mature terminal branches contain several hundred pale pink to white flowers that are about 1/4 inch wide when open. Most of the flowers function as males and provide pollen, but some are bisexual and set fruit. Pollination is by flies, wasps, and bees.
Some of the flowers in each inflorescence are perfect, so do not produce pollen and are incapable of producing fruit. Pollen cannot be shed in high humidity or rain. Mangos are monoecious and self-fertile. The quality of the fruit is based on the scarcity of fiber and the taste. Some mango trees tend to be alternate bearing. Fertilization is also ineffective when night temperatures are below 55° F.
For perfect growth, mango tree needs a deep soil to accommodate their extensive root systems. A pH between 5.5 and 7.5 is preferred. High Ph, soil may cause leaf tip burn. They are somewhat tolerant to alkalinity. Mango trees require regular applications of nitrogen fertilizer to promote healthy growth flushes and flower production. The best available fertilizer for a mango plant is organic fertilizer.
Sandy soils require more fertilizer than loam or clay. . My fertilizers feeding program for mangos is quite similar to one used for Kinnow and working satisfactory. But only in early summer. Mangos may be pruned to control size in late winter or early spring. Dead wood must be removed. Saving big mango trees from frost damage is still unknown to me and further studies are being carried out in that respect.
Winter temperature below 30 degrees damage leaves and twigs. Flowering and fruiting are seriously affected at temperatures below 40 degrees during bloom. Do not prune dead parts until the frost danger is over. Mango fruit matures in 100 to 150 days after flowering subject to various conditions. When the first fruit shows ripening color on tree, the fruit of that size and over may be removed. Do not store below 50°F.
The fruit ripens best if placed stem- end down in trays at room temperature with no air circulation so that fruit do not get dried off from outer layer. Irrigation, nutrition, pest spray, weeds and grass control are the main steps to be taken to improve the conditions for a mature mango tree. Biennial bearing: The term biennial, alternate or irregular bearing generally signifies the tendency of mango trees to bear a heavy crop in one year (On year) and very little or no crop in the succeeding year (Off year).
Most of the commercial varieties are biennial bearers. When a tree produces heavy crop in one season, it gets exhausted nutritionally and is unable to put forth new flush thereby failing to yield in the following season. The problem has been attributed to the causes like genetic, physiological, environmental and nutritional factors. For overcoming biennial bearing, deblossoming is recommended to reduce the crop load in the ‘On’ year such that it is balanced in the ‘Off’ year.
Proper maintenance of orchard by way of effectively controlling pests and diseases and regular cultural operations may also result in better performance of the tree every year. Fruit drop: Despite high fruit set initially, the ultimate retention is quite low in mango. The fruit drop is more or less a continuous process and can be classified into three groups: (i) Pinhead drop, (ii) Post-setting drop and (iii) May-month drop.
The fruit drop in first two groups are insignificant compared to the third group which affects the final yield significantly and needs more attention. Embryo abortion, climatic factors, disturbed water relation, lack of nutrition, disease, pest and hormonal imbalances are the major factors that lead to fruit drop.
Fruit is borne on new season’s growth and usually on the tips of the outer branches of the tree. Therefore, it is only necessary to lightly thin trees by removing weak, overcrowded or broken branches, keeping the centre of the tree open. Cut off branches which are too near the ground.
Developing trees should be trained to eliminate low branches less than 2 feet from the ground, leaving three to four main branches on the trunk at different heights. Pruning of well-formed older trees is usually confined to removal of dead branches.
Pruning is preferably done after fruiting, before a growth flush occurs. Pruning can also be done to restrict tree size for small yards or when more than 35 trees per acre are planted. Some delay in flowering can be expected from new growth produced in response to pruning. Post harvest pruning is a common practice
Fertilizer may be a 1:1:1 or 1:2:2 ratio formulation, such as 16-16-16 or 10-20-20 NPK. TREE ESTABLISHMENT. During tree establishment, phosphorus (P) is important for root development. YOUNG TREES. Young trees should receive 0.1 to 0.2 pound of N (e.g., 1 to 2 pounds of 102020 fertilizer) per year during the first year and 0.15 to 0.3 pound of N (e.g., 1.5 to 3 pounds of 102020) during years two and three.
The total annual amount of fertilizer should be divided into three or four applications, preferably applied before growth flushes are anticipated. Cover ground around with wheat straw to release food slowly on each watering and les weed. BEARING TREES. Nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) are needed by bearing trees for good yields.
In general, bearing mango trees should receive about 1 pound of a complete fertilizer (containing N, P, and K) annually for each inch of trunk diameter measured 4 to 5 feet above ground level. Half of the fertilizer should be applied just before flowering and the rest applied after the crop is harvested.
Supplemental N should be applied just before flowering rather than during fall and winter when vegetative growth flushes rather than flowering occur. Tip burn of leaves is due to potassium deficiency, moisture deficiency(water stress) , salt accumulation can cause the damage. Extreme fluctuations in soil moisture should be avoided. Plants may need a heavy watering to flush salts out of the root zone.
This may require an improvement in soil drainage Slow-release fertilizer formulations are preferred, except for supplemental N applications, which should have rapid release. Fertilizers should be spread in a zone directly beneath the leaf drip line and, if possible, the application should be followed by irrigation.
Most improved mango varieties are monoembryonic.with single embryos of hybrid origin, and therefore do not produce true from seed. Weed control is best down by spraying Round up when weeds are about one foot .After drying it give slow food to plants also as soil is not disturb plants roots are not damage and more bectera work .
Young mango trees should not lack water. If rainfall is limited, irrigation water should be applied about once every two weeks during the first year, every three weeks during the second year, and once a month thereafter. Mature trees are more productive if irrigation water is withheld for at least two months before flowering. Although hot, dry weather is favorable to fruit development, supplementary irrigation between flowering and harvest is advisable for good yields.
Mango suffers from diseases at all stages of its life. All the parts of the plant, namely, trunk, branch, twig, leaf, petiole, flower, and fruit are attacked by fungi, bacteria, and algae. They cause several kinds of rot, dieback, anthracnose, scab, necrosis, blotch, spots, mildew, etc.
Some of these diseases like powdery mildew, midge, are of great economic importance as they cause heavy losses in mango production. Major diseases of mango and their control measures are discussed below It is important to make a careful examination of trees for pest because the conditions change each year and necessary change in spray program is required.
A. Powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae Berthet) is one of the most serious diseases of mango affecting almost all the varieties.symptom of the disease is the white superficial powdery fungal growth on leaves, stalks of panicles, flowers and young fruits.
The affected flowers and fruits drop prematurely reducing the crop load considerably or might even prevent the fruit set. Rains or mists accompanied by cooler nights during flowering are congenial for the disease spread. The fungus acts as a parasite on young tissues of all parts of the inflorescence, leaves, and fruits.
The disease is reported to as high as 70-80 percent crop loss has been recorded on an individual plant basis.
Control: Following three sprays of fungicides at 15 days interval recommended for effective control of the disease :
- Wettable sulfur 0.2 percent (2 g Sulfex / lit. water).
- Tridemorph 0.1 per cent ( 1 ml Calixin / lit. water).
- Dinocap 0.1 percent (1 ml/g Karathane / lit. water).
B. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum state of Glomerella cingulata Ston, Spaull and Schrenk) is of widespread occurrence. The disease causes serious losses to young shoots, flowers and fruits under favorable climatic conditions of high humidity, frequent rains and a temperature of 24 to 32°C.
It also affects fruits during storage. In humid, high-rainfall areas, anthracnose disease often damages or destroys both flowers and developing fruits. Repeated applications of systemic fungicides are the only effective treatment for anthracnose in the field.
Depending on the prevailing weather conditions blossom blight may vary in severity from slight to a heavy infection of the panicles. Black spots develop on panicles as well as on fruits. Severe infection destroys the entire inflorescence resulting in no setting of fruits.
Young infected fruits develop black spots, shrivel and drop off. Fruits infected at mature stage carry the fungus into storage and cause considerable loss during storage, transit and marketing. The fungus perpetuates on twigs and leaves of mango or other hosts.
Varietal differences in susceptibility have been noted at my farm at Multan, maximum damage was observed on Chausa , Since the fungus has a long saprophytic survival ability on dead twigs, the diseased twigs should be pruned and burnt along with fallen leaves for reducing the inoculum potential.
Control: Trees may be sprayed twice with Bavistin (0.1%) at 15 days interval during flowering to control blossom infection. Spraying of copper fungicides (0.3%) is recommended for the control of foliar infection.
C. Disorders Mango malformation is widely prevalent in Asian cultivars, where more than 50 per cent of the trees suffer from this malady. The malformed panicles remain unproductive and are characterized by a compact mass of male flowers, greenish in colour and stunted in growth.
The main and secondary rachis are thick and short and bear flowers with relatively larger bracts, sepals and petals as compared to normal flowers. The malformed panicles remain intact on the trees for a considerable period.
Though research efforts hitherto have not been able to ascertain its etiology, the complexity of the disorder is attributed to cultural practices, nutritional, and to many other factors like mites, fungal and viral infestations and hormonal imbalance.
The exact cause and control of the malady is yet to be established. However, some remedial measures are recommended as follows: Pruning of shoots bearing malformed panicles and deblossoming of early emerged/infested panicles. INSECTICIDES Paclobutrazol 23 SC Dose/ha. (a.i.) 3.75 g – 10 g, For better fruit set to avoid mango malformation.
D. Dieback (Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.) is one of the serious diseases of mango. The disease on the tree may be noticed at any time of the year but it is most conspicuous during Oct.-Nov. The disease is characterized by drying of twigs and branches followed by complete defoliation, which gives the tree an appearance of scorching by fire.
The onset of dieback becomes evident by discoloration and darkening of the bark. The dark area advances and young green twigs start withering first at the base and then extending outwards along the veins of leaf edges. The affected leaf turns brown and its margins roll upwards.
At this stage, the twig or branch dies, shrivels and falls. This may be accompanied by the exudation of gum. In old branches, brown streaking of vascular tissue is seen on splitting it longitudinally. The areas of cambium and phloem show brown discoloration and yellow gum-like substance is found in some of the cells.
Control : (i) Prune the diseased twigs and spray with copper oxychloride (0.3%) on infected trees. Pruning should be done in such a way that the twigs are removed 2-3 inches below the affected portion. (ii) In small plants, pruning of twigs is followed by pasting of copper oxychloride.
E. Sooty mould (Meliola mangiferae) is common in the orchards where mealybug, scale insect and hopper are not controlled efficiently. The disease in the field is recognized by the presence of a black velvety coating, i.e., sooty mould on the leaf surface. In severe cases the trees turn completely black due to the presence of mould over the entire surface of twigs and leaves.
The severity of infection depends on the honeydew secretion by the above said insects. Honey dew secretions from insects stick to the leaf surface and provide the necessary medium for fungal growth. The fungus is essentially saprophytic and is non-pathogenic because it does not derive nutrients from the host tissues. Although the fungus causes no direct damage, the photosynthetic activity of the leaf is adversely affected due to blockage of stomata.
PEST OF MANGO BLOSSOMS
Midges, caterpillars, leafhoppers, thrips and mites are the most important pests attacking mango inflorescences.G. Mango blossom midge : ( The mango inflorescence midge)(Ceccibomyiibae) Erosomyia indica Grover Diptera : cecidomyiidae) Dasineure mangiferae. The mango gall midge or mango blister midge Erosomya mangiferae Felt, is a major pest, destroying flowers and up to 70% of set fruit. mangiferae A midge is a tiny dipteran (two-winged) fly, a relative of the mosquito.
Madge infestation followed a negative binomial. The adult midge are harmless minute flies which are short lived and die within 24 hours of emergence after copulation and oviposition. The flies lay eggs singly on floral parts like tender inflorescence axis, newly set fruit or tender leaves encircling the inflorescence. The eggs hatch within 2-3 days.
Upon hatching, the minute maggots penetrate the tender parts on which the eggs have been laid and feed on them. The floral parts finally dry up and are shed. The larval period varies from 7-10 days. The mature larvae drop down into the soil for pupation. The pupal period varies from 5-7 days. There are 3-4 overlapping generations of the pest spread over the period from January-March.
Thereafter, as the weather conditions turn unfavorable, the mature larvae undergo diapause in the soil instead of pupating. They break diapause on the arrival of favourable conditions in following January. The midge infests and damages the crop in three different stages. The first attack is at the floral bud burst stage. The eggs are laid on newly emerging inflorescence, Cecidomyiid eggs are normally laid in folds between sepals and petals of the flower buds.
Larval feeding prevents flower opening and consequently also development of the fruit. That emergence of adults was higher at 24C and 60–82% r.h. than at lower temperatures and relative humidities. the larvae tunnel the axis and thus destroy the inflorescence completely. The mature larvae make small exit holes in the axis of the inflorescence and slip down into the soil for pupation.
The second attack of the midge takes place at fruit set. The eggs are laid on the newly set fruits and the young maggots bore into these tender fruits, which slowly turn yellow and finally drop. The third attack is on tender new leaves encircling the inflorescence. The most damaging one is the first attack in which the entire inflorescence is destroyed even before flowering and fruiting.
The inflorescence shows stunted growth and its axis bends at the entrance point of the larvae. It finally dries up before flowering and fruit setting.The midge infests the newly emerged panicles by ovipositing at bud burst stage, and the first instar maggots bore into the growing panicle. Infested panicles have a characteristic right-angled bend, with a soiled exit hole, from which last instar maggots emerge to pupate in soil.
The second generation then infests very young fruits, which eventually drop before the marble stage The biology and nature of damage of the pest was also observed. The midge had four larval instars, and field cage traps showed emergence of adults to be in the afternoon. Infestation was noticed at bud-burst stage, at fruit set and on tender leaves of new flushes.
There are thousands of midge species, however those of most interest to us are members of the Ceratopogonidae family – the “Biting Midges”. This family belongs to the genus Culicoides, which consists of over 800 species in total. These biting midges are equipped with very specialised mouths that enable them to pierce skin.
Control As the larvae pupate in the soil, ploughing of the orchards expose pupating as well as diapausing larvae to sun’s heat which kills them. Soil application of Methyl Parathion also kills pupating as well as diapausing larvae in the soil. The insecticide in the soil should be applied after monitoring larval population on white sheet below the tree. Spraying of 0.05 per cent Fenetrothion or 0.045 per cent Dimethoate or 0.04 per cent Diazinon at the bud burst stage of the inflorescence has been found effective in controlling the pest population
- 1. Mites: Look for mites on upper leaf surface, along-side of midrib near terminus of leaf
- 2. Scales: Leaf surfaces( upper and lower)
- 3. Thrips : Lower leaf surfaces alongside the midribs
- 4. The mealy bug: may infest fruit and cause irregular spotting.
- 5. FRUIT FLY: Fruit fly is the pest which affect the fruit at ripening stage which can be controlled effectively by using Methanol/Ugenol in traps Or boprofazine for whitefly spray.
- 6. Dieback of mango trees may be due to prerce’s disease (PD). No treatment exist for this bacteria.
These Diseasetypically kills are unproductive 2 to 3 years after infection. PD is caused by XYLALLA FASBIDIOSA Bacterium that clogs a plant XYLEM are water connecting tissues and efficiently shut down its ability to take in water and nutrition.
Pesticides. Including insecticides, fungicides, and nematicides, are applied primarily to protect the crop and should, therefore, improve its quality potential. Their effect is also to reduce insect and fungal damage, which detracts from the appearance of the crop and increases storage losses.
In some cases, for example, the development of ‘Anthracnose’ spotting in mango, it is necessary to spray with fungicide during growth even though the disease itself may not be seen until after harvest. By removing weed competition, which may impose water stress and mineral stress, herbicides can also have beneficial effects on post-harvest behavior.
Since all crop protection chemicals are toxic to animals and humans, they must be applied in concentrations, which will not allow toxic residues to build-up. A safe period specified by the manufacturers must be left between the final application and harvest. Produce exported to developed countries is rejected if tests reveal pesticide residues above the permitted level.
Pruning of old trees may be done to open the canopyInsecticides should not be sprayed at full bloom to avoid killing of pollinators. Introduction of beehives in the orchards during the flowering season for increasing the number of pollinators. The practice of monoculture of a particular variety may be avoided. Hot water treatment for controlling stone weevil and fruit fly problems in mango
India area under the mango tree in 1995/96 1228 341(ht.) Production 10992 314( mt.ht.) 8.95(mt.ha.)The harvest season is usually between June and September in Multan Pakistan depending on the variety. Chaunsa Mango is available after 15th June to the end of August.
Sindhri Mango is available from the month of 20th May to 20th July. Fruit matures. three to five months after flowering. The best fruit production occurs when the weather is dry during the flowering period. Yields are reduced if wind damages the flowers during winter storms or if wet weather occurs throughout the flowering season.
Mango trees should be protected from strong winds, but windbreaks that shade or compete with them should be avoided. Mangos should be picked before they are fully ripe, at which time they soften and fall. Fruits are usually picked after they develop some red, orange, or yellow color. Mangos will ripen and may be picked when the flesh inside has turned yellow, regardless of exterior color.
Post-harvest control of anthracnose is accomplished by treatments employed to the fungal infection with hot water alone or with the inclusion of various fungicides.
To tackle stone weevil and fruit fly which are impediments in export of mangoes. A post harvest hot water treatment has given 100% infestation free fruits. To reduce pre-harvest losses in mango caused by hoppers, mealybug, and green scale. Azadirachtin and release of a predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.
Shoot gall psylla, a serious pest of mango could be effectively managed with three sprays of quinalphos (0.05%) starting from 1st week of August followed by 3 applications of 2,4-D (80 ppm) starting from gall appearance stage at 10 days interval.
Hot water treatment along with 1% sodium chloride effectively controlled post-harvest diseases in mango. The fruit bruises easily and must be handled carefully to avoid damage. They are ripened at room temperature and then refrigerated. Mature mangos keep fairly well under refrigeration for two to three weeks at 50 to 55F.